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Vatican Agreements

The Lateran Treaty (Italian: Patti Latranensi; Latin: Pacta Latranensia) was part of the Lateran Pacts of 1929, agreements between the Kingdom of Italy under Benito Mussolini and the Holy See under Pope Pius XI to settle the long-standing Roman question. The treaty and related pacts bear the name of the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on 11 February 1929 and ratified by the Italian Parliament on 7 June 1929. The treaty recognized Vatican City as an independent state under the sovereignty of the Holy See. The Italian government also agreed to grant the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the ecclesiastical state. [1] In 1947, the Lateran Treaty was recognized by the Italian Constitution[2] as a regulation of relations between the State and the Catholic Church. Agreement between the Holy See and Rhineland-Palatinate for the Purpose of Supplementing and Amending Previous Agreements (April 29, 1969) [Italian, German] April 18, 1969) On December 11, 1996, the following three agreements were signed between the Holy See and the Republic of Croatia: negotiations to settle the Roman question began in 1926 between the Italian Government and the Holy See and culminated in the agreements of the Lateran Pacts, which were signed on February 11, 1929 by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini for King Viktor Emanuel III of Italy and for Pope Pius XI of Cardinal Pietro Gasparri u nter undercrits.[17] [18] It was ratified on June 7, 1929. [19] From a Catholic point of view, the Church has the moral and theological right to establish diplomatic relations with states in order to conclude agreements on the care of its members who reside there. This is the concept of Libertas ecclesiae (Freedom of the Church). In accordance with the principles of religious equality set forth in the Croatian Constitution, the agreements between the Republic of Croatia and the Holy See have made it possible to grant comparable advantages to other religious organizations. The 2017 budget to support religious communities in the government budget amounted to HRK 300 million.

[7] [8] Over the centuries there were at least several hundred concordats. [19] Below is a trinalizable list of concordats and other bilateral agreements concluded by the Holy See. The agreements included a political treaty that created the Vatican City State and guaranteed the Holy See full and independent sovereignty. The Pope pledged to maintain neutrality in international relations and to abstain from a mediation controversy, unless all parties have expressly requested it. In the first article of the treaty, Italy reaffirmed the principle set forth in the Statute of the Kingdom of Italy of 4 March 1848, according to which “the Catholic, apostolic and Roman religion is the only religion of the State”. [20] The attached financial agreement was accepted as payment for all claims of the Holy See against Italy arising from the loss of the secular power of the ecclesiastical state in 1870. The Croatian government and the Holy See have signed four bilateral agreements (also called concordat or Vatican agreements) and one protocol. Although the agreements proved controversial due to the heavy financial and other burdens imposed by the agreements on the Croatian state (compared to the Croatian state budget), no Croatian government has ever attempted to change them.

From an international point of view, these agreements can be considered unfair to Croatia, as they impose obligations mainly on the Croatian State, but not on the Holy See. [1] [2] [3] [4] The issue of episcopal appointments has long been the subject of relations between the Vatican and China, with the Holy See insisting on the Pope`s divine right to appoint the successors of the apostles and Beijing views these appointments as a foreign violation of its sovereignty. . . .

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